Mix the ingredients for the marinade in a ziptop bag with the beef. Massage into the meat and allow to marinate in the refrigerator up to 8 hours.
Mix the soy sauce, mirin, rice vinegar, sugar, satay sauce, and sesame oil in a bowl; set aside.
Remove the beef from the marinade; discard marinade. Set a wok or large skillet over high heat. Add the peanut oil: when it begins to shimmer, add a few slices of beef at a time and quickly sear both sides until caramelized. Remove from the pan and repeat with the remaining beef, reducing heat slightly if needed.
If necessary, wipe any fat out of the pan and add more peanut oil. Add the onions and carrots. Stir-fry for 2 minutes, then add the ginger, garlic, and shiitake mushrooms. Stir-fry an additional 2 minutes. Add the cabbage; stir-fry until wilted. Add the scallions and kohlrabi; stir to combine.
Move the vegetables to the outer edges of the wok as best as you can (if you have a small wok, you may need to remove some veggies and add them back in at the end). Add the sauce to the center of the pan. Re-stir the cornstarch mixture and add to the sauce; mix well. Allow the sauce to boil briefly until thickened; remove from the heat (see Recipe Note #1). Garnish with cilantro and serve over rice (noodles, zoodles, or zucchini squash also work well). Enjoy!